There are several external variables that can influence an individual’s PEOU and PU. These include:
Prior experience: If an individual has had positive experiences with similar technologies in the past, they may have a more positive attitude towards using a new technology. On the other hand, if an individual has had negative experiences with similar technologies in the past, they may have a more negative attitude towards using a new technology. Prior experience can impact an individual’s perception of the new technology, and can also influence their motivation to use it. In general, prior experience is a key factor that can shape an individual’s attitudes and behaviors towards new technology, and it is important to take it into consideration when designing and implementing new technology-based interventions.
Training and support: Training and support refers to the level of instruction and assistance that is provided to users in order to help them effectively use a new technology. This can include things like in-person or online tutorials, user guides and manuals, and ongoing technical support. The more training and support that is provided, the more likely users are to feel confident and capable in using the technology, which can increase their perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. Additionally, having access to ongoing technical support can also help users troubleshoot any issues or problems they may encounter while using the technology, which can further increase their satisfaction and likelihood of continued use.
Social influence: Social influence refers to the impact that other people have on an individual’s behavior, attitudes and decision-making. In the context of technology acceptance, social influence refers to the impact that other people (e.g. friends, family, colleagues) have on an individual’s perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness of a new technology. For example, if an individual’s friends and colleagues are using a new technology and are providing positive feedback about it, this may increase the individual’s perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness of the technology, and therefore increase their likelihood of adopting it. On the other hand, if an individual’s friends and colleagues are not using the technology or are providing negative feedback about it, this may decrease the individual’s perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness of the technology, and therefore decrease their likelihood of adopting it.
Personal characteristics: Personal characteristics refer to the individual-level factors that can influence a person’s perceived ease of use or perceived usefulness of a new technology. These factors can include things like a person’s age, gender, education level, technical aptitude, and personality traits. For example, a person who is older may be less likely to be comfortable with new technology and therefore may have a lower perceived ease of use. Similarly, a person who is more introverted may be less likely to seek out new technology and therefore may have a lower perceived usefulness. Personal characteristics can also include things like motivation, attitude, and self-efficacy, which can also play a role in determining how a person perceives a new technology.
Perceived compatibility: Perceived compatibility refers to the degree to which an individual believes that a new technology is consistent with their existing values, needs, and past experiences. In other words, it is the extent to which an individual perceives that the new technology will fit well with their current work or personal habits and routines. For example, a student who is used to taking notes by hand might not see a digital note-taking app as compatible with their current work habits and may be less likely to adopt it. Additionally, an individual may see a new technology as incompatible if it does not align with their personal values or beliefs. For example, an individual who is concerned about privacy may not see a new technology that collects a lot of personal data as being compatible with their personal values. Understanding how compatibility is perceived by individuals can be important in predicting and promoting the acceptance and use of new technologies.
Perceived risk: Perceived risk refers to the degree to which an individual perceives potential negative consequences or loss associated with the use of a new technology. This can include concerns about data privacy, security, or financial loss. For example, a university student might be hesitant to use a new online payment system if they perceive a high risk of fraud or identity theft. In the Technology Acceptance Model, perceived risk is considered as one of the external variables that influence an individual’s perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness of a new technology. It suggests that if an individual perceives high risk with a new technology, they may be less likely to adopt it, even if they find it to be easy to use and useful.
Thus, the external variables that influence an individual’s perceived ease of use or perceived usefulness of a new technology can vary and depend on the specific technology and the context in which it is being used.