Definition: Efficacy is a measurement of how effectively a treatment performs in an ideal or controlled setting.
Context: Efficacy is frequently assessed via clinical trials or experimental studies in controlled environments, where researchers would closely monitor and adjust parameters to isolate the effects of the intervention. The purpose is to see if the intervention has the expected effect under ideal circumstances.
Design: Often uses randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with control groups and standardized procedures.
Definition: Effectiveness is a measurement of an intervention’s ability to achieve its desired effect in real-world or everyday situations. It evaluates the intervention’s effectiveness in the larger population, considering various factors such as patient diversity, real-world compliance, as well as innovations in healthcare service.
Context: Unlike efficacy, effectiveness is assessed in a broader and less controlled context, often reflecting the obstacles and differences experienced in typical healthcare settings. It provides insight into the intervention’s effectiveness when applied to a larger and more representative group of people.
Design: Often uses observational studies or pragmatic trials
Definition: Efficiency is a measurement of an intervention’s capability to achieve the objectives with a limited amount of resources, time, or cost.
Context: Efficiency assesses not just the effectiveness of an intervention, but also its economic and resource aspects. An efficient intervention optimizes benefits while limiting resource use, making it cost-effective and practicable for broader utilization.
Design: Involve economic evaluations or cost-benefit analyses comparing resource use and outcomes