The disease outbreaks that have been declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) are as follows;
1. H1N1 Influenza Pandemic (2009)
2. Polio (2014) – Ongoing polio eradication efforts
3. West Africa Ebola Outbreak (2014-2016)
4. Zika Virus Epidemic (2015-2016)
5. Kivu Ebola Epidemic (2018-2019)
6. COVID-19 Pandemic (2019)
7. Monkeypox Outbreak (2022)
Why do these outbreaks raise such concerns?
These outbreaks raised concerns due to their serious impact on public health, as the event has the potential to cause significant morbidity and mortality and is highly transmitted, spreading over a large area. This is also unusual and can be an emerging new pathogen for which the healthcare industry may have no clues. It can pose a public health risk through the international spread of disease. Due to international travel and trade, rapid transmission to countries can make it difficult to control the spread of disease and can lead to a global pandemic. These outbreaks can disrupt social and economic systems, which can also exacerbate existing social inequalities and lead to violence and discrimination.
In your opinion, is there a disease or condition that may potentially lead to PHEIC in the future? Why?
It is difficult to say which condition can potentially lead to PHEIC in the future. I would consider war-related diseases or conditions that may potentially happen. I think infectious diseases like cholera, measles, and tuberculosis can occur due to the breakdown of public health infrastructure, no access to clean food, water, sanitation, vaccination, and treatment, the displacement of populations, and the use of biological weapons. The war can lead to the displacement of large populations, which can make it difficult to control the spread of infectious diseases.