Could you list the disease outbreaks that have been declared as the Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)?
The disease outbreaks that were declared as PHEIC are
H1N1 Influenza: – global pandemic in 2009 was caused by the H1N1 virus subtype of influenza.
Poliovirus – a highly contagious virus that primarily affects children.
Ebola in West Africa: – largest and most complex Ebola outbreak occurred from 2014 to 2016.
Zika virus – primarily transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and is associated with neurological disorders.
Ebola in Kivu – Ongoing outbreak since 2018 with significant public health concern
COVID-19 – caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which caused a global pandemic.
Monkeypox – Rare viral disease similar to smallpox which occurred outbreaks in Central and West Africa
Why do these outbreaks raise such concerns?
Those outbreaks raised such concerns when they met two or more criteria from the following domains:
1. Is the public health impact of the event serious?
2. Is the event unusual or unexpected?
3. Is there a significant risk of international spread?
4. Is there a significant risk of international travel or trade restrictions?
In your opinion, is there a disease or condition that may potentially lead to PHEIC in the future? Why?
In the future, there is a risk of bioterrorism attacks that involve using biological agents such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins to harm intentionally. That kind of attack can use several mediums, like aerosols, food, and water, to be contaminated, and that can have a significant impact on public health.