1. How can surveillance help to detect and control the disease?
Given the possibility that the circulating monkeypox virus adapts to the human host, it is critical to continuously anticipate rapid epidemiological shifts and prevent the possibility of a pandemic. Effective surveillance can detect and confirm cases as soon as possible and public health authorities can undertake the necessary actions to prevent this virus from spreading further. Moreover, global surveillance initiatives help identify high-risk locations where monkeypox transmission is more likely to occur or emerge.
2. Should we conduct active or passive surveillance or both for the disease, why?
Both active and passive surveillance should be conducted. Reports of deaths, disease registries, hospital records, and billing systems within health insurance schemes are examples of passive surveillance. The data collected from passive surveillance can be more precise and effective in an acceptable timeframe. Active surveillance which requires substantially more time and resources is often more complete than passive surveillance. It is beneficial when an outbreak has begun or is suspected to track the number of cases closely.
3. Which method should be best to identify cases, why?
3.1 Cases in medical facilities vs. Community
Common symptoms of monkeypox are a skin rash or mucosal lesions which can last 2–4 weeks accompanied by fever, headache, muscle aches, back pain, low energy, and swollen lymph nodes. It is not easy to differentiate the disease in the community. In this case, I think the confirmation diagnosis from medical facilities is preferred.
3.2 Sentinel VS population-based surveillance
Monkeypox virus spreads in humans through close contact with infected people or animals, and exposure to clothing or bedding of patients with rashes. Many people have caught it through sexual activity. Therefore, sentinel surveillance, monitoring of specific population groups or areas, can be utilized to keep a close watch on foreign arrivals and LGBTQI+ communities.
3.3 Case-based VS aggregated surveillance
Case-based surveillance is likely to provide more detail on the case.
3.4 Syndromic VS laboratory-confirmed surveillance
Laboratory-confirmed surveillance is preferred. Identifying monkeypox can be difficult as other infections and conditions can look similar. It is important to distinguish it from chickenpox, measles, bacterial skin infections, scabies, herpes, syphilis, other sexually transmissible infections, and medication-associated allergies. For these reasons, testing is key for people to get treatment as early as possible and prevent further spread.
4. What dissemination tools will you choose to disseminate monkeypox surveillance information? Why do you choose this/these tools?
Social media are increasingly harnessed for public health and can be used as communication tools to disseminate disease risks and interventions. People can monitor official information and link to original source of official data.