1. How can surveillance help to detect and control the disease?
Surveillance can help detect and control monkeypox in several ways by rapidly identifying cases and clusters to provide optimal clinical care, isolating cases to prevent further transmission, identifying, managing, and following up contacts to recognize early signs of infection, protecting frontline health workers, and tailoring effective control and prevention measures. Surveillance can also help to identify new and emerging strains of the virus, which can inform the development of vaccines and other treatments.
2. Should we conduct active or passive surveillance or both for the disease? Why?
Both active and passive surveillance could be beneficial for monkeypox. Given that monkeypox can present with a range of symptoms, including fever, rash, and swollen lymph nodes, active surveillance can help detect more cases, including asymptomatic ones, and provides better data quality. However, it requires more resources. Passive surveillance is less effective at detecting cases of monkeypox disease, but it is more cost-effective. It helps in understanding the clinical presentation of monkeypox and provides a foundation for response. By conducting both active and passive surveillance, public health officials can get a more complete picture of the epidemiology of monkeypox disease and take necessary steps to control it.
3. Which method should be best to identify cases, and why?
Cases in Medical Facilities vs. Community
Medical facilities can provide confirmed diagnoses, while community surveillance can help detect unreported or undiagnosed cases. Case detection in medical facilities is generally more effective than case detection in the community. This is because people who are sick are more likely to seek medical care. Cases in medical facilities provide valuable clinical data and facilitate immediate isolation of patients. However, it is important to note that not all cases of monkeypox disease will be present in medical facilities. Community cases are equally critical to identifying asymptomatic or mild cases and understanding the extent of the outbreak.
Sentinel VS population-based surveillance
Sentinel surveillance, focused on specific locations or populations, can provide in-depth data and early detection. However, population-based surveillance would give a broader view of the disease’s prevalence, capturing cases from a wider area. A combination may be ideal. The choice depends on available resources and the specific goals of surveillance.
Case-based VS aggregated surveillance
Case-based surveillance can provide detailed information about each case, which is useful for contact tracing and understanding disease spread. Aggregated surveillance, which reports overall case numbers, provides a broader perspective of the outbreak. Both should be used, with a focus on case-based data for detailed investigation.
Syndromic VS laboratory-confirmed surveillance
Syndromic vs. Laboratory-confirmed Surveillance: Syndromic surveillance can provide quicker outbreak detection but cannot confirm diagnoses. Laboratory-confirmed surveillance is slower but provides confirmed diagnoses. Laboratory confirmation is required to confirm cases of monkeypox disease. Laboratory-confirmed surveillance provides definitive diagnoses, confirming cases and helping understand the pathogen’s genetic characteristics. Integrating both enhances the surveillance’s overall effectiveness.
4. What dissemination tools will you choose to disseminate monkeypox surveillance information? Why do you choose this/these tools?
The best dissemination tools for monkeypox surveillance information will depend on the specific audience and the resources available. However, some tools are generally more effective than others.
Electronic health records (EHRs): EHRs can be used to disseminate monkeypox surveillance information to healthcare providers. This information can help healthcare providers to identify and diagnose cases of monkeypox disease.
Public health websites: Public health websites can be used to disseminate monkeypox surveillance information to the public. This information can help the public to learn about monkeypox disease and to take steps to protect themselves from infection.
Social media: social media can be used to reach a large audience with monkeypox surveillance information. However, it is important to note that social media can also be used to disseminate misinformation. It is important to use credible sources of information when disseminating monkeypox surveillance information on social media.
Mass media: Mass media, such as television and newspapers, can be used to disseminate monkeypox surveillance information to a large audience. However, mass media can be expensive to use.
Mobile Apps and SMS Alerts: Utilizing mobile apps and SMS alerts can provide real-time updates and advice to the public, especially in areas with high mobile phone penetration.
Healthcare professional organizations: Healthcare professional organizations can be used to disseminate monkeypox surveillance information to healthcare providers. This information can help healthcare providers to stay up to date on the latest guidance and recommendations.
Community organizations: Community organizations can be used to disseminate monkeypox surveillance information to the public. This information can help the public to learn about monkeypox disease and to take steps to protect themselves from infection.
Educational institutions: Educational institutions can be used to disseminate monkeypox surveillance information to students, staff, and parents. This information can help to educate people about monkeypox disease and prevent the spread of the virus in schools.
The best way to disseminate monkeypox surveillance information is to use a combination of different tools. This will help to reach a wide audience and to ensure that the information is accurate and timely. By using a variety of dissemination tools, public health officials can reach a wide audience with monkeypox surveillance information and help to protect the health of the population.
(1) Surveillance, case investigation and contact tracing for Monkeypox …. https://www.who.int/publications-detail-redirect/WHO-MPX-Surveillance-2022.4.
(2) Mpox (monkeypox) – World Health Organization (WHO). https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/monkeypox.
(3) Mpox (Monkeypox) – European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/mpox-monkeypox.
(4) Mpox (monkeypox) outbreak 2022 – Global – World Health Organization (WHO). https://www.who.int/emergencies/situations/monkeypox-oubreak-2022.